- Brockington, D. (2002). Fortress Conservation: The Preservation of the Mkomazi Game Reserve, Tanzania. James Currey Publishers.
- Counsell, S. (2022). Fortress conservation is heading for a crisis that can’t come soon enough. African Arguments.
- Duffy, R., Massé, F., Smidt, E., Marijnen, E., Büscher, B., Verweijen, J., Ramutsindela, M., Simlai, T., Joanny, L., & Lunstrum, E. (2019). Why we must question the militarisation of conservation. Biological Conservation, 232, 66–73.
- Flummerfelt, R. (2022). To Purge the Forest by Force: Organized violence against Batwa in Kahuzi-Biega National Park. Minority Rights Group International.
- Blanc, G. (2020). L’invention du colonialisme vert. Editions Flammarion. In English here.
- Kashwan, P. (2020). American environmentalism’s racist roots have shaped global thinking about conservation. The Conversation.
- Mbaria, J., & Ogada, M. (2016). The Big Conservation Lie: The Untold Story of Wildlife Conservation in Kenya. Lens & Pens Publishing.
The Conservation Industry
- Büscher, B., & Fletcher, R. (2020). The Conservation Revolution: Radical Ideas for Saving Nature Beyond the Anthropocene. Verso Books.
- Sène, A. L. (2022). Against Wildlife Republics. The Republic, 6.
Game vs Bushmeat
- Edoro, A. (2017). Why I No Longer Use the Term “Game” for Bushmeat | Chika Unigwe. Brittle Paper.
Hunting vs Poaching
- Hanes, S. (2017). White Man’s Game. Saving Animals, Rebuilding Eden, and Other Myths of Conservation in Africa. Metropolitan Books.
- MacKenzie, J. M. (1997). The Empire of Nature: Hunting, Conservation, and British Imperialism. Manchester University Press.
- Steinhart, E. I. (2005). Black Poachers, White Hunters. A Social History of Hunting in Colonial Kenya. Ohio University Press.
Exploring vs Encroaching
- Mudimbe, V. Y. (1994). The Idea of Africa. Indiana University Press.
- Neumann, R. P. (2004). Moral and discursive geographies in the war for biodiversity in Africa. Political Geography, 23(7), 813–837.
- Scoones, I. (2022). How pastoral farming can help to avoid a biodiversity crisis. The Conversation.
Ranchers vs Herders
- The Oakland Institute. (2021). Stealth Game: ‘Community’ Conservancies Devastate Land & Lives in Northern Kenya. The Oakland Institute.
"Travelers" vs Nomads
- Gilbert, J. (2014). Nomadic Peoples and Human Rights. Routledge.
Human-wildlife coexistance vs conflict
- Massé, F. (2016). The Political Ecology of Human-Wildlife Conflict: Producing Wilderness, Insecurity, and Displacement in the Limpopo National Park. Conservation and Society, 14(2), 100–111.
- Duffy, R. (2014). Waging a war to save biodiversity: The rise of militarized conservation. International Affairs, 90(4), 819–834.
- Counsell, S. (2022). Conservationists claim that their aim to place thirty per cent of the planet in protected areas by 2030 is supported by science. It isn’t. What the science does and doesn’t say about 30×30. REDD Monitor.
- Tauli-Corpuz, V., Alcorn, J., Molnar, A., Healy, C., & Barrow, E. (2020). Cornered by PAs: Adopting rights-based approaches to enable cost-effective conservation and climate action. World Development, 130, 104923.
Wilderness, pristine/untouched/intact nature
- Ellis, E. C., Gauthier, N., Klein Goldewijk, K., Bliege Bird, R., Boivin, N., Díaz, S., Fuller, D. Q., Gill, J. L., Kaplan, J. O., Kingston, N., Locke, H., McMichael, C. N. H., Ranco, D., Rick, T. C., Shaw, M. R., Stephens, L., Svenning, J.-C., & Watson, J. E. M. (2021). People have shaped most of terrestrial nature for at least 12,000 years. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(17), e2023483118.
- Marris, E. (2021). Why the myth of ‘wilderness’ harms both nature and humanity. New Scientist.
- Neumann, R. P. (1998). Imposing Wilderness: Struggles over Livelihood and Nature Preservation in Africa. University of California Press.
- Finney, C. (2014). Black Faces, White Spaces. Reimagining the Relationship of African Americans to the Great Outdoors. The University of North Carolina Press.
- ActionAid, Corporate Accountability, Friends of the Earth International, Global Campaign to Demand Climate Justice, Third World Network, & What Next? (2020). NOT ZERO: How ‘net zero’ targets disguise climate inaction.
Carbon offsetting and carbon credits
- Monjane, B., Lang, C., de, D. T., Samuel, E., Prawiranegara, I., Kill, J., Lohmann, L., Yawanawa, L., Bruna, N., Lungungu, P., & Goldtooth, T. (2022). 15 Years of REDD: A Mechanism Rotten at the Core. World Rainforest Movement.
Nature-Based Solutions (NBS)
- Counsell, S. (2021). Anatomy of a ‘Nature-Based Solution’: Total oil, 40,000 hectares of disappearing African savannah, Emmanuel Macron, Norwegian and French ‘aid’ to an election-rigging dictator, trees to burn, secret contacts, and dumbstruck conservationists. REDD Monitor.
- Counsell, S., & Kill, J. (2022). How Shell is using Nature Based Solutions to continue its fossil fuel agenda. Milieudefensie Friends of the Earth Netherlands.
- Friends of the Earth International. (2021). Nature based solutions: A wolf in sheep’s clothing. Friends of the Earth International.
Sustainable use of resources
- Sachs, W. (1999). Sustainable Development and the Crisis of Nature: On the Political Anatomy of an Oxymoron. In F. Fischer & M. Hajer (Eds.), Living with Nature: Environmental Politics as Cultural Discourse (p. 0). Oxford University Press.
- Escobar, A. (1995). Encountering development: The making and unmaking of the third world. Princeton University Press.
- International Labour Organization. (1989). Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention (ILO169).
- United Nations. (2008). United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
- Brockington, D., & Igoe, J. (2006). Eviction for Conservation: A Global Overview. Conservation and Society, 4(3), 424–470.
- Dowie, M. (2011). Conservation Refugees. The Hundred-Year Conflict between Global Conservation and Native Peoples. The MIT Press.
- Dowie, M. (2006). Conservation Refugees: When conservation means kicking people out. Seedling, 1–7.
- Dooley, K., Nicholls, Z., & Meinshausen, M. (2022). Carbon removals from nature restoration are no substitute for steep emission reductions. One Earth, 5(7), 812–824.
- Fleischman, F., Coleman, E., Fischer, H., Kashwan, P., Pfeifer, M., Ramprasad, V., Rodriguez Solorzano, C., & Veldman, J. W. (2022). Restoration prioritization must be informed by marginalized people. Nature, 607(7918), Article 7918.
- Katz, E. (1996). The Problem of Ecological Restoration. Environmental Ethics, 18(2), 222–224.
- Dasgupta, S. (2021). ‘Bad science’: Planting frenzy misses the grasslands for the trees. Mongabay.
- Kröger, M. (2014). The political economy of global tree plantation expansion: A review. The Journal of Peasant Studies, 41(2), 235–261.
- Lewis, S. L., Wheeler, C. E., Mitchard, E. T. A., & Koch, A. (2019). Restoring natural forests is the best way to remove atmospheric carbon. Nature, 568(7750), 25–28.